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Pest: Powdery Mildew

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Pest: Powdery Mildew

 

 

(order: Erysiphaceae)

 

 

 

powdery-mildew.jpg

 

 

 

 

Special Species Notes:

 

Powdery Mildew is a surprisingly aggressive fungus taking second place only to bud/gray mold (Botrytis).  Powdery mildew diseases are caused by many different species of fungi in the order Erysiphales.  Erysiphales are an order of ascomycete fungi. The order contains one family, Erysiphaceae, that has 28 genera and approximately 100 species. Many of them cause a plant diseases called powdery mildew. Also known as White Powdery Mold, or  "WPM", or "PM".

 

Erysiphales have superficial mycelium which extracts nourishment from the host plant through specialized hyphae that penetrate the epidermal cells of the host by means of absorbing organs called haustoria. Erysiphales are notable for intricate appendages which follow fractal geometry within fibonacci numbers and can be useful for species identification.

 

There is existence of six main evolutionary lineages.

 

 Clade 1 consists of Erysiphe, Microspaera, and Uncinula, , all of which have an Oidium subgenus Pseudoidium mitosporic state.

 

Clade 2 consists of  Erysiphe galeopsidis and Erysiphe cumminsiana (anamorphs in Oidium subgenus Striatoidium).

 

Clade 3 consists of Erysiphe species with anamorphs in Oidium subgenus Reticuloidium.

 

Clade 4 consists of Leveillula and Phyllactinia, which have Oidiopsis and Ovulariopsis mitosporic states, respectively.

 

Clade 5 consists of Sphaerotheca, Podosphaera, and Cystotheca, which have Oidium subgenera Fibroidium and Setoidium mitosporic states.

 

Clade 6 consists of Blumeria graminis, which has an Oidium subgenus Oidium mitosporic state.

 

I will be doing this one on Podosphaera macularis (formerly Sphaerotheca macularis) since it infects hops, a relative of our medical cannabis. Podosphaera macularis a plant pathogen that causes powdery mildew of hops and is capable of infecting many plants.

 

Unlike most fungal pathogens, powdery mildew fungi tend to grow superficially, or epiphytically, on plant surfaces. During the growing season, hyphae are produced on both upper and lower leaf surfaces, although some species are restricted to one leaf surface only. Infections can also occur on stems, flowers, buds, or fruit. Specialized absorption cells, called haustoria, extend into the plant epidermal cells to obtain nutrition. While most powdery mildew fungi produce epiphytic mycelium, a few genera produce hyphae that are within the leaf tissue; this is known as endophytic growth.

 

Common Species:

 

Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen, from the phylum Ascomycota, which causes powdery mildew on onion. This disease prefers warm, dry environments. It is rare in the United States, and is currently restricted to western states.

 

Uncinula necator (syn. Erysiphe necator) is a common pathogen that causes powdery mildew of  Vitis species, including the wine grape, Vitis vinifera. The fungus is believed to have originated in North America. European varieties of Vitis vinifera are more or less susceptible to this fungus.

 

Uncinula necator infects all green tissue on the grapevine, including leaves and young berries. It can cause crop loss and poor wine quality if untreated.

 

Erysiphe berberidis is a fungus that causes powdery mildew on Oregon grape leaves.

 

 Leveillula taurica (also known by its anamorph name, Oidiopsis taurica) is a fungus that causing powdery mildew of onions also artichoke.

 

Podosphaera macularis

 

Erysiphe cichoracearum  was formerly reported to be the primary causal organism throughout most of the world.

 

Podosphaera xanthii (a.k.a. Sphaerotheca fuliginea) is the most commonly reported cause of PM.

 

Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, causes powdery mildew of wheat.

 

 f. sp. hordei causes powdery mildew of barley.

 

Microsphaera diffusa  affects Legumes, such as soybeans.

 

Podosphaera leucotricha is a fungus that can cause powdery mildew of apples and pears.

 

Multiple species of fungus can cause powdery mildew of cucurbits: cucumbers, squashes (including pumpkins), luffas, melons, and watermelons

Podosphaera xanthii,

 

At least three other Erysiphaceae fungi can cause powdery mildew in cucurbits: The most frequent, after P. xanthii, is Erysiphe cichoracearum, the former primary causal organism throughout most of the world. Podosphaera fusca is another, sometimes considered synonymous with P. xanthii. Cucumbers in greenhouse environments have also been reported to be susceptible to Leveillula taurica .

 

Microsphaera syringae is a fungus that can cause powdery mildew in lilac

 

Podosphaera aphanis is the cause of powdery mildew in strawberries and other Rosaceae like Geum rivale (the water avens)

 

Sawadaea tulasnei is a fungus that causes powdery mildew on tree leaves. This fungus attacks the leaves of the Norway maple in North America, Great Britain, and Ireland, and  the Japanese maple or smooth Japanese maple.

 

Golovinomyces orontii causes powdery mildew on  rockcress leaves.

 

In the family Sphaeropsidaceae of Sphaeropsidales fungi, species of the genus Cicinnobolus are hyperparasites of powdery mildew. Ampelomyces quisqualis is an anamorphic fungus that is a hyperparasites of powdery mildews. This parasitism reduces growth and may eventually kill the mildew, taken place for over 50 years, resulting in the development of products such as 'AQ10'.

Below are the Genera. they are link to wikepedia if you want more information.

 

 

Identification

 

Powdery mildew is one of the easier plant diseases to identify, as its symptoms are quite distinctive. Infected plants display white powdery spots on the leaves and stems that stand out against cannabis green leaves. Powdery mildew on cannabis, like other plants,  is a spore based fungal problem that can affect both outdoor and indoor marijuana gardens. The spores are transmissible through the air, and being carried by wind means it can be fairly difficult to protect against. Some insects can carry it or damage the plant that will allow PM to get a foothold. PM is also a very sneaky fungus because the spores can lie dormant in the soil until conditions are just right for them to start growth. Usually, this is when the environment is warm and highly humid.  Powdery mildew also occurs frequently when the cannabis plants are too close together, and/or there is poor/no airflow. An overcrowded grow room unnecessarily risks damage to your plants. White Powdery Mildew has an easy time spreading.

 

You can recognize powdery mildew by its white or grayish spots in color, circular patches of a living, breathing, fuzzy, flour-looking substance, spots or powdery-like threads on the new growth of many plants. The color of the leaf may be paler then normal where the patches are. The new leaves in the upper potions of the plant will be affected whereas in the lower part of the plant the older leaves are affected.  Besides the smeared white spots, the leaves may be drooping or welting.  PM shows up on your plant’s leaves without any warning. From there, the mildew can easily spread to other leaves and buds, rendering the buds unusable.

 

Once the conditions are right, the powdery mildew spores are likely to attack young plants first.  It will then spread over the entire plant, infecting stems and buds, in addition to leaves.

 

It will cover the foliage of the plant and inhibit the photosynthesis process. The lower leaves are the most affected, but the mildew can appear on any above-ground part of the plant. As the disease progresses, the spots get larger and denser as large numbers of asexual spores are formed, and the mildew may spread up and down the length of the plant.

 

Powdery mildew , the dusty whitish-gray stuff we see, is the final stage of the disease when it flowers and makes spores. Which is why once I spot it, all plants showing infection or not that are in the room are destroyed, soil is thrown away, room/equipment cleaned (bleach), new plastic for floor, and repaint room. I've only seen PM once, and that was in quarantine conditions.

 

Under optimal conditions, PM can potentially grow 20 generations in a (outdoor) growing season.

 

 

 

MD-01.jpg

 

 

Life cycle:

 

The life cycle will be done in the outdoor environment, so you can learn about it in its natural setting and make the appropriate changes in the indoor environment.

 

Optimal Infection Temperature:  64-77F (18-25 °C)

Humidity: over 55% and warm temperatures

 

For the hops plant, PM will be noticeable on infected plants as soon as the hop shoots start to emerge with the latent period being approximately 10 days at 53-59F  (12-15°C) compared to 5 days at 64-80F (18-27°C).

 

Powdery Mildew is a rapidly reproducing fungus by both sexually AND asexually depending on the time of year. Fresh spores can be made in 7 days.

 

Podosphaera macularis overwinters on the soil surface in debris as fungal survival structures (chasmothecia: the fruiting body; cleistothecium is a former term for this structure that is still widely used) or as mycelia (the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments, hyphae). These chasmothecia are formed closer to the end of the growing season that overwinter.

 

When favorable conditions are encountered during early spring, the asci (sac-like structures, normally they hold 8 spores) within chasmothecia will rupture and ascospores will be discharged. The characteristic morphology of chasmothecia of Hop Powdery Mildew are spherical black structures with spiked appendages.

 

The infection of the host plant begins when PM germinates on the surface of the plants leaf or stem, resulting in a septate mycelium of cells with a single nucleus. The mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae). In most powdery mildews only the epidermal cells are attacked. Think of the epidermal as the skin of the plant.  The external mycelium gives rise to short, erect conidiophores, each of which bearing a single row of barrel-shaped spores, the youngest being at the base. The affected parts become thus covered with a forest of conidiophores assuming a white powdery appearance.

 

Favorable environmental conditions for Podosphaera macularis to be able to produce an abundance of offspring include low sun exposure, soil moisture, and excessive fertilization. In addition to optimal infection temperature, periods with small temperature differences between night and day, with a minimum of 50F (10 °C) at night and a daily high of 68F (20 °C)  increase the risk of infection.

 

High humidity and optimal temperature conditions are necessary for primary infection between the middle and end of May. The cleistothecia swell up and burst due to increased turgor pressure leading to the release of ascospores.

 

During the secondary infection period from mid-July to August, conidia infectivity and germination is highest around 64F (18 °C). However, leaf wetness is not essential for the formation and germination of conidia, but rather slight rain has an indirect effect related to high humidity and low sun light. Since the life cycle mainly exists externally, with only haustoria (a slender projection from the root of a parasitic plant), inside the host supra-optimal temperatures and low relative humidity are unfavorable parameters for germination, infection or sporulation (formation of spores) of powdery mildew.

 

Temperatures exceeding 86F (30 °C) for more than three hours reduce the chance of infection by up to 50%. Intense rain and wind periods that cause spores blown throughout the yard also prevent powdery mildew fecundity. In addition, solar irradiation can kill released spores, but as hops/cannabis grows, the sun can’t penetrate the dense canopy.

 

At the end of the growing season, powdery mildew fungi produce sexual spores, the ascospores that will remain dormant all winter to germinate in spring. The cleistothecia are the resting (hibernating) stage of the pathogen. They are generally spherical with no natural opening. When the asci expand they crack develops rupture a in the wall of the fruiting body, throwing the ascospores into the air. When the ripe spores become detached and are readily dispersed by the wind, causing fresh infection. This type of fruiting body is unique among the Ascomycota. A variety of appendages may occur on the surface of the chasmothecia. These appendages are thought to act like the hooks of Velcro fastener, attaching the fruiting bodies to the host, particularly to the bark of woody plants, where they overwinter.

 

 

 

 

MD-04.jpg

 

 

 

First signs:

 

Early symptoms include chlorotic spots (pale, yellow, or yellow-white) on the leaves of hop plants. At this point the disease has been inside the plant a week or more. Spots may fade to gray or white as the season progresses. Signs include white clusters of hyphae, which are often present on the leaves, and in some cases can infect the buds. If this infection occurs, a brown, necrotic lesion may develop. Occasionally, chleistothecia are visible as small, black dots on the undersides of leaves. Growth slows, leaves yellow, and plants die as the disease advances. Occasionally fatal indoors, this disease is at its worst when roots dry out and foliage is moist. Plants are infected for weeks before they show the first symptoms.

 

 

MD-03.jpg

 

 

How it spreads:

 

The ascospores act as the primary inoculum and are dispersed passively by wind. Upon encountering a susceptible host plant, the ascospores will germinate and cause infection.

Through air ventilation systems, from pets, and any other living thing that moves (including yourself). Until the surrounding environment is ideal, the spores from mildew will stay dormant, biding their time.

 

Wooly aphids (Eriosomatinae) and other sucking insects are often vectors of transmission for powdery mildew, and other infectious diseases. Typically wooly aphids in sub temperate climates precede and are an indicator of various infections, including Powdery mildew. Aphids penetrate plant surfaces where they often reside and provide a host of potential inoculants through physical, digestive or fecal secretions. Aphids are often an indicator of other potential plant problems.

 

 

MD-05.jpg

 

Host plants:

Numerous; almost no type of plant is immune.

 

What to do

 

The two primary ways to control Podosphaera macularis are cultural and chemical control. The most effective way to manage powdery mildew is through preventative measures. Plants with strong genetics have less change of getting sick and are less vulnerable for pests and diseases

 

Avoid over fertilization. New growth is more susceptible.

 

Personal cleanliness is fundamental to preventing pests and diseases and part of Integrated Pest Management. Wash your hands before touching foliage and after handling diseased plant. Growers that know what they are doing, do not walk around the buggy outdoor gardens, or do yard work and then visit an indoor garden. They do it vice versa. Think before entering an indoor garden and possibly contaminating it. Did you walk across lawn covered with rust fungi or pet the dog that just came in from the garden outside? Did you just fondle your spider mite infested split leaf philodendron in the living room, or tree or bush outside? Avoid such problems by taking a shower, and changing shirt, pants, socks, and shoes before entering an indoor garden.

 

Some growers use the same old potting soil over and over without sterilizing it. Used un-sterilized soil may harbor harmful pests and diseases that have developed immunity to sprays. Not to mention the nutrients the plant took.

 

Prevention is the first step and the true key to fungi control. Cover the carpet with white Visqueen plastic.

 

Fungal diseases are often caused by environments that are too damp or humid, or places which have poor or no airflow. Fungal spores float around in the air looking for a suitably damp place to root down and if the environment is right, that suitably damp place might be on your cannabis plant. So we'll address these issues first.

 

 

 

High Humidity

 

PM needs moisture to thrive, but that doesn’t necessarily mean it needs water. Having a grow area with high humidity is all PM needs to grow. This seems to be a bit problematic since young cannabis plants grow best in relatively humid environments (40% -60% RH). Luckily, high humidity usually only becomes an issue when it’s combined with the next cause (poor/no airflow).

 

People who live in environments with extremely high humidity (such as Florida) can purchase a dehumidifier to control humidity in the grow area. This is especially important during the flowering phase when humidity needs to be much lower (45% RH) to prevent rampant growth of  PM and bud mold.

 

Poor/no Airflow

 

Powdery Mildew has a hard time settling in a grow room where the air is being moved. High humidity will give PM the conditions it needs to survive, but poor airflow is what gives it the ability to settle down in the first place and if it does it grows poorly on wind-dried soil, stems, and leaves.

 

In fact, a small (preferably oscillating) fan moving air in a grow area will prevent the vast majority of Powdery Mildew woes. Ideally, you can incorporate at least two fans into your grow room to improve the conditions and lessen the chances of powdery mildew development. You should have one fan directing air through the leaves of your plants and the other fan facing out from your grow room. This is so the “used” warm air is dispelled from the room and replaced with fresh air.

 

Poor Ventilation

 

If you have PM spores in your grow area and the air in grow area is never exchanged for fresh air, the spores get multiple chances to land on your plants and reproduce. This happens most often in conditions where cannabis is being grown in a closed, unventilated space - such as a closet - and precautions aren’t taken to exchange old stale air for new fresh air.

 

UVC lights are non-chemical fungal controls for the hydroponic or indoor growing system. They can be placed in the air ventilation system to help eliminate algae, mold and mildew spores from penetrating the indoor garden. It is important to mention that if you have added beneficial microbes to your hydroponic cannabis system, they will also be eradicated, so you may want to think twice when considering this form of control.

 

Leaf-Leaf Contact/ crowded grow room

 

Leaves that are touching each other will form moisture between them, and thus they become more likely to contract PM. Untrained bushy/leafy plants with lots of new vegetative growth are especially prone since plants will often have leaves mashed up against each other as they try to reach the light.

 

Cultural practices that can help prevent the disease include carefully monitoring water and nutrient, reducing initial spraying, and removing basal growth or fan leaves. Scratching is done through disturbing the soil surface. Growers can remove some of the fan leaves that are completely shaded from the grow light, or blocking light lower in the canopy, and bend some of the branches (this is often referred as pruning or training the plant- I use fish weights) to make fewer choice landing spots for White Powdery Mildew. Also, this frees up energy for the plant to use when done correctly and increases yields. Furthermore, pruning, and/or scratching will aid in further reduction of the disease. All of these methods disturb the overwintering stage of the life cycle of Podosphaera macularis.

 

another cultural control of the disease include growing powdery-mildew tolerant/resistant varieties of the host plant. In general, Cannabis Indica is the most resistant to pests, and sativa is more resistant to fungal attacks. Some examples are: like Papaya. It is potent, flowers early, and - most importantly - is disease resistant. If I remember right, she has a very sweet taste. Landrace strains, Durban Poison, Brazil Amazonia, Colombian Gold, Thai Sativa, Orient Express, Super Silver Haze, Strawberry cough, Power Plant, White Widow, Big Bud, Hollands Hope, the Church, Early skunk, some hybrid strains (like Haze crosses).

 

Since the fungicides are a preventative measure, they are not very useful to use during a full-blown infection. Chemical control primarily consists of spraying fungicides in hopes of preventing the disease through the use of early, continuous spraying during the growing season. Thus, prophylactic fungicide programs can be a very effective way in preventing the disease by disturbing released spores and further infection within the disease cycle of Podosphaera macularis. As there are several fungicides that are effective against powdery mildew, it is important to apply the fungicides at specific times. If it is known that powdery mildew is present, spray programs should be started as soon as the shoots emerge.

 

Due to powdery mildew's ability to quickly develop resistance to fungicides, it is important to rotate the fungicides that are used.

 

 

 

 

 

Management:

 

Most conventional products are made for prevention and control, not elimination of an existing infection. That’s why it’s important to start a IPM method before powdery mildew occurs or at least at the earliest sign of detection.

 

In order to take care of a plant that has been infected with powdery mildew, you should utilize a plastic bag to remove the leaves that have been affected. Seal the bag and then put it into a disposal container that has a tight lid. The reason for using the plastic bag is to prevent the spores from being sprung into the air and infecting other plants nearby. After removal of the infected areas, treat your plant with fungicide on the stems that held the removed leaves, and the rest of the garden.

 

If your plants suffer from powdery mildew, there are a few alternative methods of safe naturally based sprays you can use to help/heal your plants, including milk and apple cider vinegar or oil sprays such as cinnamon oil, garlic oil, coriander oil, clove oil, jojoba oil, or cottonseed oil sprays. 

 

There are many retail, off-the-shelf fungicide products that are effective at treating mildew. One of the most common active ingredients used for control is “chlorothalonil”. Although effective, it coats the leaf surface with a white milky film that is quite noticeable.

 

Some ways to solve the problem is at home.

 

If you are looking for an extremely simple way to get rid of the powdery mildew, you should give the tap water – paper towel method a try. Water, Ironically, dry conditions and high humidity are the most favorable conditions for powdery mildew to form. But straight water is its enemy because it washes off the spores before they have time to embed. Simply get the paper towels wet and gently wipe your infected leaves with them, therefore removing the mildew that is already there. When doing this, make sure you don’t bump your leaves too much, as that could cause spores to enter the air and spread. However, wet foliage is friend to many other plant diseases. If you’re going to try this option, do so early in the day so foliage has time to dry out quickly.

 

Mouthwash – If it can kill the germs in your mouth, certainly the fungal spores of powdery mildew are no match. Generic, ethanol based mouthwash can be very effective at control. Tests using one part mouthwash to three parts water worked for well for Jeff Gillman, Ph.D and Associate Professor at the University of Minnesota, Department of Horticulture. Just be careful when mixing and applying mouthwash as new foliage can be damaged.

 

Vinegar – Similar to mouthwash, the acetic acid of vinegar can control powdery mildew. A mixture of 2-3 tablespoons of common apple cider vinegar, containing 5% acetic acid mixed with a gallon of water does job. However, too much vinegar can burn plants but at the same time, higher concentrations (above 5%) are more effective. Mist this mixture onto your plants to both kill the powdery mildew growth and prevent any more from cropping up.

 

Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate) -This is possibly the best known of the home-made, organic solutions for powdery mildew. Although studies indicate that baking soda alone is not all that effective, when combined with horticultural grade or dormant oil and liquid soap, efficacy is very good if applied in the early stages or before an outbreak occurs. To make your own solution—mix one tablespoon of baking soda with a teaspoon of dormant oil and one teaspoon of insecticidal or liquid soap (not detergent) to a gallon of water. Spray on plants every one to two weeks. Some people say one-half teaspoon of baking soda mixed with a quart of water.

 

Potassium bicarbonate– Similar to baking soda, this has the unique advantage of actually eliminating powdery mildew once it’s there. Potassium bicarbonate is a contact fungicide which kills the powdery mildew spores quickly. In addition, it’s approved for use in organic growing.

 

Milk – The latest player in the fight against powdery mildew is milk. This milk spray made from 40% milk and 60% water. This works so well because the milk has protein in it which reacts to the sun and naturally forms an antiseptic. This antiseptic is what kills the mildew. You can use a milk spray preventatively by spraying it on your plants every ten days, but only when the sun (or artificial light) is shining brightly. This is a common method for all gardeners to use on their plants.

 

Neem oil – This is a readily available organic option to disease and pest control. Neem oil is extracted from the neem tree, native to India. This is an effective disease control and a broad spectrum, natural insecticide that is kinder to beneficial insects and mammals. As for controlling powdery mildew, results vary but it is not the best option. Results are usually moderate at best.

 

Eagle 20EW. This product is effective and, therefore, popular with many gardeners. The active ingredient is Myclobutanil. Eagle 20EW acts as a systemic with a residual presence in the plant. For this reason, treating a plant once or twice in its vegetative stage is often sufficient enough to successfully suppress powdery mildew. This is also the reason to avoid treating plants with it during the latter stages of growth. Eagle 20EW can be used as a preventative treatment when introducing new plants to your garden from outside gardens. It can also be an effective knockdown treatment when other options have failed to break the pathogenic cycle. That being said, it should not be overused. Science has proved that overuse of fungicides, like Eagle 20EW, can result in some fungi becoming resistant to them. For this reason, the product label recommends alternating it with other products after two consecutive uses. Use personal protective equipment and carefully read the labels before mixing and using.

 

Sulfur, copper, and Lime/Sulfur – Direct contact by sulfur prevents disease spores from developing. When mixed with hydrated lime, the solution will penetrate leaves for even greater effectiveness. A widely available version of this combination includes copper sulphate and hydrated lime, known as Bordeaux mix. However, all of these solutions can burn plant tissue and is damaging to microorganisms in the soil and harmful to beneficial insects. It is also considered moderately toxic to mammals and humans. Do not apply in temperatures above 90F and less than 50 percent humidity. It stays on foliage until washed off. Use sparingly and with caution if at all: Wear a mask, gloves, and safety goggles; cover exposed skin and hair. Avoid skin, eye, ear, and nose contact. Irritates eyes, lungs, and skin.

 

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These are naturally occurring hyperparasites of powdery mildew. They form colonies on the infection, reducing growth and may eventually kill powdery mildew on cannabis leaves. Rain perpetuates the life cycle of this beneficial fungus. A formulated powder is available under the brand name AQ-10.

 

Bacillus Pumilus is a spore-bearing bacterium found in soil. It is resistant to environmental stresses, include UV light. The growth of Bacillus Pumilus on plant roots prevents Fusarium spores from germinating. A commercial product is available by the name of Sonata. Application boosts the cannabis plants’ immune system, inhibiting fungal germination and growth.

 

Bacillus Subtilis is a naturally occurring anti-fungal bacterium found in soils. It has proven to fight blight, gray mold and several strains of mildew, yet has no adverse affects on the environment or humans. For this reason, it has been approved as a fungicide and bactericide for use in organic farming. Bacillus Subtilis compounds prevents pathogens from colonizing crops. This biological fungicide can be procured online under several brand names. Two strains are available; one for foliage applications (QST 713) and one to be used as a soil amendment at the time of planting (GB03 or MBI600).

 

Gliocladium is a species of parasitic fungus living in the soil. It produces volatile organic compounds which are toxic to other fungi and bacteria. Gliocladium protects cannabis from gray mold by suppressing spore production. It is best applied as a soil drench and is available under several brand names.

 

Benefiacai bugs:

 

Microbe-rich compost teas are also said to be effective controls.

 

Some species of slugs and snails feed on powdery mildew.

 

Mesodon thyroidus (snail) feeds on powdery mildew. Common name: White-lip Globe.

 

Identification
Width: 17-28 mm
Height: 11-18 mm
Whorls: 5+

 

This snail’s rounded shell is a bit smaller and thinner than the largest Polygyrids, and it has a unique umbilicus. Its reflected lip partly covers this opening, leaving a slit-like gap. It often has a small parietal tooth, but this tooth is sometimes absent, even within entire populations (which we believe have been mistakenly named the spurious Mesodon clausus), so it is a poor character for identification.

 

Synonyms for this species include Helix thyroidus, H. thyroides, H. t. var. pulchella, Mesodon leucodon, M. thyroides, Polygyra thyroidus, and P. thyroides.

 

 

The link below will take you to "An Intro to beneficial bugs and beneficial insect food" it has a list (been worked on) to pests and beneficial insects

 

http://freemygreenpdx.com/topic/14334-an-intro-to-benefical-bugs-and-beneficial-insect-food/?p=124257


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Classy, sassy, and a bit of a smart assy

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Thanks for the info! Powdery mildew is caused by high humidity, plant overcrowding, and poor air circulation. One may try these ways to deal with it:

- Apple Cider Vinegar with one gallon of water.

- Mix 1 tablespoon baking soda, 2 1/2 tablespoons vegetable oil and one-gallon water. Shake well then add 1/2 teaspoon of Castile soap. Shake the container as you spray your plants to keep the oil and water from separating.

- Milk can also be used as a preventative measure as it changes the pH level of the surface of the plant leaves and prevents mildew from adhering to them.

This would help for sure but if you are having some problem dealing with it consult exterminator NJ professionals for suggesting other remedies.

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