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Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Extractions 05 September 2016 - - - - - - · 512 views



Wowza!  Look what Dr Kate has been up too!


Introduction to a cold extraction method for hash oil that preserves carboxylic acid form of cannabinoids THC and CBD


By Kate Welch, Pharm.D







Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Extractions 01 February 2016 - - - - - - · 1,006 views


Wowza! Look what Dr Kate has been up too!

Introduction to a cold extraction method for hash oil that preserves carboxylic acid form of cannabinoids THC and CBD

By Kate Welch, Pharm.D




From: Rebuilding the Haskel EXT-420 and 59025-3

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in DIY, Extractions 09 January 2016 - - - - - - · 673 views

Hee, hee, hee, for all ya'll Haskel lovers, it just keeps getting better! Here is a video by the Haskel Western Region Manager on how to maintain and completely rebuild your Haskel EXT-420 or 59025-3.


Source: Rebuilding the Haskel EXT-420 and 59025-3


Some National Fire Prevention Association standards the fire marshal considers

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Safety, Skunk Pharm, DIY, Extractions 17 December 2014 - - - - - - · 1,950 views

For those of ya'll romancing a fire marshal, it may help to look at things from his perspective, to understand his motives and what he will be considering.

Starting with motives, he is an official paid to protect people and property, and keeps his job if he does a reasonable job of doing so, regardless of any deep love of mankind he embraces as a bonus.

Besides citizens and property, he also has to be concerned with the safety and welfare of his own men fighting a fire, should one occur, as well as traffic snarls and repercussions.

I retired about a decade ago from working regularly with fire marshals and permiting officials, but what I found is that they are trained to find what is wrong with this picture, and know the regulations chapter and verse.

There will always be some pathology amongst the populous, some of which will seek employment in an empowering position, but by the time a person reaches the status of fire marshal, they usually have the experience and respect of their men and superiors, as opposed to being a clerk, who will never rise above being in charge of the front thwart-the-public-desk.

I personally found that turning into a friendly ghost is always the best policy.

Friendly means treating them/their position with respect and not losing your cool when they thwart you, and turning into a ghost means not trying to outsmart them, so they don't trust you and put you under a microscope as a snake.

Lots of snakes, so with them under the microscope, brothers and sisters doing what they say they are going to do, fall out of focus and slide smoothly through.

I also found that if you use them as a resource, by involving them early on with a quick conceptual plan review, that there were fewer surprises later on, when changes are expensive to fix.

At any rate, here is a partial list of the NFPA standards worthy of reading, to better understand where the fire marshal will be coming from:

Code No**Code Name
NFPA 1 Fire Code
NFPA 3 Recommended Practice for Commissioning of Fire Protection and Life Safety Systems
NFPA 4 Standard for Integrated Fire Protection and Life Safety System Testing
NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
NFPA 12 Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 12A Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
NFPA 13 E Recommended Practice for Fire Department Operations in Properties Protected by Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
NFPA 14 Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems
NFPA 15 Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection
NFPA 16 Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems
NFPA 22 Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
NFPA 24 Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances
NFPA 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems
NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
NFPA 55 Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code
NFPA 56 Standard for Fire and Explosion Prevention During Cleaning and Purging of Flammable Gas Piping Systems
NFPA 58 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code
NFPA 59A Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
NFPA 67 Guide on Explosion Protection for Gaseous Mixtures in Pipe Systems
NFPA 69 Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code®
NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace®
NFPA 77 Recommended Practice on Static Electricity
NFPA 79 Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery
NFPA 91 Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids
NFPA 220 Standard on Types of Building Construction
NFPA 221 Standard for High Challenge Fire Walls, Fire Walls, and Fire Barrier Walls
NFPA 290 Standard for Fire Testing of Passive Protection Materials for Use on LP-Gas Containers
NFPA 329 Recommended Practice for Handling Releases of Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases
NFPA 386 Standard for Portable Shipping Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids
NFPA 496 Standard for Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment
NFPA 497 Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas
NFPA 791 Recommended Practice and Procedures for Unlabeled Electrical Equipment Evaluation


Source: Some National Fire Prevention Association standards the fire marshal considers:Some National Fire Prevention Association standards the fire marshal co


From: Extracting With Oils and Fats

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Skunk Pharm, DIY, Cannabis Cooking, Oils, Extractions 12 June 2014 - - - - - - · 866 views
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Oil and fat extraction is a method we'uns will be further developing, so watch this thread.

Cannabinoids and the other terpenes in cannabis, are readily dissolvable in fats and oils, so fats and oils may be used for both extraction and as a menstruum.

When I say fats and oils, I am referring to the vegetable and nut oils, as well as clarified butter. Oils tasty enough that may be ingested with a dropper, mixed with drinks, or used in medibles.

Water solubility varies, but one of the advantages of using oil for extractions, is that they are for the most part non soluble in water, so they don't extract excessive water soluble constitutes, like chlorophyll.

There are practical limits to the potency that can be achieved extracting with oil, because as the oil becomes saturated with cannabis terpenes, they become less concentrated and their solvent action slows down to a crawl, before stopping altogether.

Potency can be ratcheted up somewhat through using the same oil to do multiple extractions of fresh material, but even that has limitations.

A key factor in achieving maximum removal rates and efficiency, is keeping the boundary layer between the un-dissolved resins and the unsaturated oils used for extraction regularly removed. The method that we used in this experiment, was simple, but through periodic stirring.

Sublingual oil tinctures:

Aside for their useful role in extraction, oils and fats may be mixed at any ratios with cannabis terpenes, if you are just mixing them together as oils. Some of them are damn tasty even taken from a dropper, though as the concentration increases, the flavor becomes less fetching and it leaves more of a lingering aftertaste.

Choose an Oil:

We haven't tried them all, but we have tried Almond, Avocado, Butter, Canola, Coconut oil, Grape Seed oil, Olive, Pecan, Sesame, and Walnut oils. They all work well, so they are a good place to start, if you are new to extraction.

Preparing the material:

We first start by drying the trim. For the most floral flavor and the highest amount of lighter terpenes, material that is hung until it reaches the small stem snap stage is best for our purposes.

In our experience, for best flavor and taste, freshest material works best. Older cured material loses the nuances of the floral undertones and just tastes like hash.

That means that the degree of drying and curing is also critical, if your goal is to maintain maximum terpene content. Not that hash has a bad flavor, but it should be a conscious choice.

Choosing material:

Oil from buds is tastier than oil from even sugar trim, because most of the terpenes are produced by the buds, and that is where they are the most plentiful. Tasty is usually not a word used to describe oil from fan leaves or stems, though effective may be.

The material that we used in this experiment, was donated sweet trim from Chocolate and was well dried and cured.

Oils used in this experiment:

We used Ghee (clarified butter), Coconut oil, Grape Seed oil, and Olive oil for the run, because they are commonly available and inexpensive.

Making Ghee:

To make the Ghee, we melted unsalted butter and cooked it at low temperature, until the butter fats separated from the Ghee. We then skimmed off the floating butter fats, and sucked off the Ghee, using a turkey baster, leaving the heavier butter fats in the bottom of the pot.

Most recipes for extraction with butter call for boiling them material in water and butter, but we studiously avoid adding water and our Ghee extraction has only the lightest tinge of green and no chlorophyll flavor.

Here are the three extractions taken out of the refrigerator, where they were stored between cooking and actual pressing. Note that the butter, olive oil, and the coconut extractions have a slightest green tinge, yet none actually had a chlorophyll flavor.

In this experiment, we didn't attempt to reach maximum saturation, but to determine what was reasonable to expect from a single batch. To reach maximum saturation, we would have simply processed more than one batch of fresh material through the oil.

What we did, was fill four jars 3/4 full of the trim and then added enough oil to cover it, stirred it thoroughly, and then added another inch of oil.

We then lightly capped the jars and set them in pot of hot water and simmered it on low for six hours, uncapping and stirring thoroughly a couple of times an hour.

At the end of six hours, we removed the jars from the hot water and set them aside to cool. The next day, we cooked them two more hours, stirring regularly, and the third day we cooked them another six hours, for 14 hours total, with three heat cycles.

Lightly capping means snug enough to allow some pressure to build, but loose enough to vent off anything excessive. Since we used cured material and didn't add water, there were little in the way of volatiles to boil off and produce pressure.

I left the lid off the boiling pot, so as to not force steam into the jar head space.

For pressing, we warmed the oils and ghee up by placing them in boiling water, this time with the lids on tight and the lid on the pot,

Next we cut up some rags from some surplus drape material, with approximately a 160/200 thread count, and draped it over a restaurant sized potato ricer that we scored at Hongs Restaurant Supply in Portland. By pressing it down into the potato ricer, it formed a pocket that holds approximately a quart of plant material.

Folding the cloth over and pressing it, produced a pristine clear oil, which was tasty enough to dropper.

The most flavorful, was the ghee, and possibly the fastest to uptake and produce an effect. Alas, after just testing just enough of each of them to determine their flavors, I needed a nap, so the next phase of this project, is to titrate for potency and effect, as well as flavor, using volunteer test panels.

We also will experiment with different ways to use the oils in medibles, so I will update this post as they occur:

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Source: Extracting With Oils and Fats


Vegetable glycerin extraction:

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Skunk Pharm, DIY, Extractions 09 June 2014 - - - - - - · 776 views
skunk pharm.

Kosher vegetable glycerin is an effective method for extracting cannabis concentrates directly from the plant material and produces a tasty medication that is easily ingested directly orally, or mixed with drinks and food.

Glycerin is a heavy, syrupy clear liquid sugar alcohol that has approximately 60% of the sweetness of sucrose, and about the same food value.

It is however not actually a true sugar and is often used as a sugar substitute, as diabetics are often able to use it without experienced the blood sugar rollercoaster they suffer with sucrose or other sugars.

Glycerin makes an extremely tasty and provocative cannabis tincture, that when made using cold extraction methods, is reminiscent of wild honey, as it preserves all the individual flavors, so that they dart off in all directions simultaneously.

Hot glycerin extraction also makes a tasty tincture, with the flavor more resembling a fine soup, where the individual flavors are married into one overall flavor. While not as whimsical and provocative as a cold extraction, it can be prepared start to finish in a couple days, where cold extractions take a minimum of 60 days and are commonly soaked for 120 days or longer.

Many of the provocative flavors and odors from cannabis are aromatic terpenoids, and the reason that they are aromatic in the first place, is that they give off molecules at room temperature.

Heating speeds up the rate that the accompanying terpenoids and other aromatics are vaporized off, so many are collateral damage in a hot extraction and are lost.

The glycerin molecule is actually only a three carbon molecule chain, with three hydroxyl groups (OH) attached, and as hydroxyl groups are hydrophilic, glycerin is hygroscopic (absorbs water) and dissolves readily (miscible) in water.

It has a flash point of approximately 177C (351F), and a boiling point of 290 °C (554°F).

It is relatively non toxic. The MSDS tells us that the LD50 Oral rat dosage is 12,600 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, which is approximately 5.7 grams per pound of body weight, or 36 ounces for a 180 pound male.

By comparison, acute oral toxicity (LD50) Oral Rat for sucrose sugar is 29700 mg/kg and about 7060 mg/kg for ethyl (grain) alcohol.

At saturation, Glycerin only hold as 33% as much cannabis oil as the same volume of ethyl (grain) alcohol, so about three times more is required per dose.

To reach maximum saturation however, requires processing more than one batch of fresh material through the glycerin, because as the saturation level increases, the glycerin becomes less aggressive as a solvent and the partially dissolved cannabis boundary layer interface with the solvent is also no longer at full strength and as reactive.

To keep the reaction from slowing to a snails pace, or even stopping, some method must be used to keep removing this stagnant layer and refreshing the boundary between the solvent and resin.

In addition heat dramatically affects resin dissolution rates. The hotter it is, the faster it works, up to the point of overheating.

As glycerin is usually used as an oral med, we also need to consider decarboxylating the cannabinoids so that they are orally active.

If not in excess, some water solubles add to the flavor of a glycerin tincture, and taking all of the water out of the material before processing it, makes it frangible and prone to breaking into small fragments that may be hard to remove.

Let's look at how these four variables can be manipulated to produce delicious and effective glycerin tinctures.

Drying and decarboxylation:

Plant material is typically dried to around 10/15% water content by weight for smoking and vaporizing purposes, which is low enough to make some delicious glycerin, but for those who prefer less water solubles in their glycerin tincture or wish to decarboxylate the material before extracting, you may add a drying and/or decarboxylation step.

To simply remove most of the remaining moisture, I place the plant material on a cookie sheet in a 200F oven and turn it, until it is frangible when I roll it between my finger and thumb.

At that point it is ready for extraction, but if you also wish to decarboxylate the plant material before making your tincture, you can then crank up the oven to 250F and after it stabilizes at the higher temperature, replace the plant material in the oven and hold it at temperature for approximately 30 minutes

That will add a roasted flavor to the tincture and many of the turpenoids will be lost, but it will decarboxylate approximately 70% of the existing carboxylic acids into their non acid orally active form.

An alternative to decarboxylating the material ahead of time, is to do it after the extraction is complete and the plant material has been filtered out. That eliminates the roasted flavor and preserves more of the turpennoids.

Using Temperature:

Elevating the temperature of the glycerin increases the rate of dissolution of the resins, especially if you raise the temperature high enough for the resins to be molten. THC, CBD and CBN are all molten at just under 180F, so we operate at that temperature.

The advantage of using as low a temperature as possible, is that fewer aromatic terpenoids are boiled off at that low a temperature, and it decarboxylates more slowly, so that the process doesn't pass the peak of the decarboxylation curve and start down the other side toward low THC and high CBN. As previously noted, we can finish the decarboxylation later.

Keeping the boundary layer removed:

The boundary layer is the layer of partially reacted resin and dilute solvent that forms on the surface of the resin after the initial aggressive dissolution by the solvent. The solvent at that point is dilute, as is the resin concentration, so that the reaction slows or grinds to a halt.

To keep the reaction operating at a reasonable rate, we need to periodically or continuously remove that boundary layer, and there are four methods that I will present here.

The first is to stir. Simply stir gently and thoroughly with a wooden spoon

The second is to shake. Simply shake a jar of glycerin and plant material by hand regularly. A paint shaker would also work for this application.

The third is to tumble. Placing the jar of glycerin and plant material in a rock or photo film tumbler will keep the boundaries fresh. It is an effective and gentle way to speed up the process.

The forth is vibration. Placing jar of glycerin and plant material in a vibratory cartridge case cleaner, or other form of vibration, creates more shear energy that tumbling and will dissolve the material the fastest of any method we have tried thus far.

Material selection and preparation for hot or cold processing:

While glycerin tincture can be made from anything from prime bud to stems, it is tastiest done from prime bud and least tasty with the stems. I usually make glycerin tincture out of the sweet trim removed from the buds during manicuring and popcorn buds.

It is not necessary to grind up the material, only to break it up any buds so that the material is loose enough for the glycerin to reach all the surfaces. Excessive pulverization of the material will result in color and particulate pickup that is difficult to remove. If you leave some surfaces blinded however, the resins on those surfaces won't be removed either.

Extracting using the cold process:

The cold process is the easiest and tastiest way to make glycerin tincture. We extract using the cold process, simply by soaking the plant material in glycerin at ambient temperatures and agitating it for sixty days or more. Sixty days is about the least amount of time for a cold extraction, and typically they are run 90 to over 120 days. I have one experiment with more than 365 days of soak time.

After the extended soak and agitation, the glycerin is poured off and pressed out of the plant material to yield quality and tasty tinctures. It can also be used with fresh material for another cycle, so as to build up more potency.

There are a number of ways to press out the glycerin from the plant material, and it applies to both cold and hot extraction, so I will cover that in a separate discussion at the end of extraction methods.

The way that I make cold process glycerin tincture, is to load a canning jar 2/3'ds full of plant material, lightly compacted and then cover with glycerin while stirring with a wooden spoon, until every surface is well coated and mixture is homogenous, and then add another inch of glycerin on top.

I place the jars in a cool dark place or cover to exclude light. I sometimes wrap jars with aluminum foil to exclude light.

Every day for the soak period days, I periodically agitate the jars, using one of the above methods and at the end I filter out the plant material for a a light golden to dark amber glycerin tincture, that is tasty and of high quality.

Because the aromatic terpenoids are preserved, it will have many flavors present, interacting and darting off in all directions simultaneously.

You can more easily filter the mixture if you warm it up to 150F or so before filtering.

Potency and gleaning:

As previously noted, to reach maximum saturation, requires processing more than one batch of fresh material through the glycerin, because as the saturation level increases, the glycerin becomes less aggressive as a solvent and the remaining partially dissolved cannabis is also no longer at full strength and as reactive.

In point of fact, the fresh pressed material from the above first cycle will still contain significant cannabinoids, which takes two to three cycles to get it all.

What I do is put the fresh pressed plant material back in the jar and refill with fresh glycerin and add fresh material to the freshly pressed glycerin for another cycle, if I desire more strength.

The fresh glycerin will do the best job of scavenging the remaining cannabinoids, and then can be used again with fresh material to further build up its potency. It is by this cascading technique, that we can leave little behind and yet still maintain quality and potency.

I should note that the most potent glycerin tincture is not necessarily the most tasty, and one cycle produces effective meds, so most of the time we do not bother to bump up the potency with cold tincture.

Hot glycerin extraction:

We prepare plant material and extract cannabis by the hot glycerin extraction process in much the same way as we do by the cold process, though we stir it instead of shaking, tumbling, or vibrating it.

We also use a thermal cycling process and stir regularly, rather than an extended cook as many processes call for. The expansion and contraction of the thermal cycling help break up the resins so that they dissolve more readily.

As with cold tincture, I load a canning jar 2/3'ds full of plant material, lightly compacted and then cover with glycerin while stirring with a wooden spoon, until every surface is well coated and mixture is homogenous, and then add another inch of glycerin on top.

I then set that jar in an electric fondue pot full of hot Canola oil at 200F, and stir it regularly with a wooden spoon until the mixture reaches 180F, and then I adjust the pot temperature controls to maintain 180F.

I stir the mixture regularly with a wooden spoon, for another thirty minutes, and then I take it out of the hot oil and allow it to cool to ambient temperature.

For what it's worth, I use a wooden spoon, because a light tink with a metal spoon against a hot glass jar while stirring, can break it and dump the whole mixture into the hot oil.

After the mixture has cooled to room temperature, I again place into 200F oil and bring it back up to 180F while stirring regularly. When it reaches 180F, after a through stir, I take it out of the hot oil and let it cool to ambient temperature again.

I repeat the last step about five more times and after the last cook and stir, I filter out the plant material while the mixture is still hot.

Filtering glycerin tincture:

Vegetable glycerin is thick and syrupy, so it doesn't filter quickly or easily without mechanical help. The simplest way to filter it is to heat it up so that it isn't so viscous, and pour it into a jelly bag, which you wring out by hand. That works, but leaves a lot of glycerin behind and you are limited to temperatures that you can handle with your hands.

A French coffee press, a potato ricer, or a jelly press can also work, and you can buy tincture presses used by the botanical extraction industry.

I made my own press, using a hydraulic bottle jack inside a scrap metal frame, which presses a filter bag between two stainless dog dishes, at a force of 12,000 psi, and catches the glycerin in a third stainless dog dish.

It presses the plant material into a hard little puck, that I have to break up to reprocess.

Flavoring glycerin tincture:

A well made glycerin tincture is a taste delight in its own right, but for those of ya'll who just like to play, here is how I've flavored glycerin that I had already infused with cannabis oil.

I started by adding equal parts of Bing Cherry and Blueberry raisins in a blender with enough 190 proof grain alcohol to make a soupy paste when macerated by the blender.

I tossed in half as much Japanese Gari and a dash of Almond extract, added another half a cup of 190 proof, and let it blend well.

When pureed, I poured it into a stainless mixing cup and placed it in a 180F hot oil bath. I cooked and stirred it until all the alcohol was gone, and then removed it to cool.

I then put a bout two tablespoons of that concentrate into each quart of infused glycerin to be flavored and place it in the 180F oil to cook for thirty minutes while stirring regularly.

At that point I remove it from the oil, filter out the concentrate using a filter bag and the glycerin press. The glycerin is delightfully flavored, and the chef gets to eat the concentrate from the filter bag! Ahwooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!!!!!!!!!! Hee, hee, hee....................

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Source: Vegetable glycerin extraction:

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DIY Vacuum Purging Chamber

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Skunk Pharm, DIY, Extractions 09 June 2014 - - - - - - · 635 views
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To perform some of the desirable alchemy with cannabis essential oils, requires some sort of vacuum chamber that you can control the heat and vacuum levels in, as well as see what you are doing.

These are readily available as vacuum desiccators and vacuum ovens, but all are pricey, so how about just building your own?

We already have a glass desiccator with a hot plate inside, and picked up a new used vacuum oven, but alas the temperature controls are ineffective in the low ranges that we operate, so we are in the process of refining its controls.

More on that subject on a separate thread, but this thread is to show how we punted when the vacuum oven capacity that we had counted on, eluded us, with meds to process backlogged.

To that end, we used a old 22 quart Mirror pressure cooker that was gifted to us, and after removing the gasket, we tossed the lid.

I then drilled a 1/4" pilot hole through the side wall wrapper, about 2.5" below the top flange, followed by a 3/4" bit, to enlarge the hole to fit a 1/4" NPT brass bulkhead fitting.

I then inserted the bulkhead fitting through the side wall from the inside out, installing a gasket on the inside flange, and tightening the nut and lock washer on the outside of the pot.

To this I added a close nipple, a cross, with two 1/4" ball valves, and two 1/4" MPT to 1/4" flare refrigeration hose fitting. One for the vacuum pump and the other for the vacuum gauge hose.

As it is temporary, and we needed it immediately, we reused the existing gasket, and made a new lid out of a 1" X 16" acrylic plate. At -29.9" Hg gauge, there is about 1/16" lid deflection in the middle, so a thicker plate would be better to reduce high cyclic fatigue.

If it were permanent, we would have a new Viton gasket cut by Paramount, or Gaskets Unlimited and use 1 1/2" polycarbonate, for the lid.

Hee, hee, hee, after telling me that they didn't have any, and after having them cut the 1" acrylic plate, I found a 22" X 29" X 1 1/2" Polycarbonate remnant at Multi Craft Plastics, which I scored for $72. It has one 6" hole in one corner, but that is $2/lb for bullet proof polycarbonate panels, like those used at teller windows. Snicker, snark, snort, more projects to come!

Here are pictures showing how we made and how it turned out. We are able to easily control the temperature with an outside hotplate and reduce the pressure to -29.9 with one of our 6.2 cfm single stage AC vacuum pumps:

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Source: DIY Vacuum Purging Chamber


From: Getting the Green and Waxes Out Afterwards

Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in RSO, BHO, C02, Skunk Pharm, DIY, Cannabis Cooking, Extractions 04 April 2014 - - - - - - · 1,067 views

[quote name="Graywolf" post="2598" timestamp="1312202232" date="01 August 2011 - 05:37 AM"]

Public opinion appears to be split on the salubriousness of including chlorophyll and other plant water solubles in our extracted oils, so this is written not to stir controversy, but specifically for those of ya'll whom do not wish ingredients other than cannabis in your extracts.

Those whom wish to preserve those ingredients are invited to please ignore this posting, rather that debating whether it is a mistake or even a crime against sweet Mary's natural wholeness.

In a nutshell, many of those non cannabinoid ingredients came along for the ride because there was water present and they are water soluble. It is easier to use a process that minimizes their extraction in the first place, but what if that is a moot point, because you already have an extraction with excessive non-active ingredients and wish to remove them?

Next best to a process that doesn't pick up many water soluble ingredients, is one to take them out, so let's talk about a couple processes that we use at skunk pharm:

If the extraction just needs final polishing, we may simply re-dissolve it in 190 proof (~95.5% azeotropic) ethanol and stick it in the freezer overnight at 0F, for the waxes to coagulate and the excess water solubles to precipitate out.

We then carefully decant and filter the alcohol mixture, to remove the coagulated waxes, as well as the chlorophyll, and plant alkaloids which precipitated out as sludge in the bottom of the container.

We routinely use this step to clean up extractions using Isopropyl or Methanol, because they are far more aggressive than ethanol in stripping everything, and much of the non active ingredients fall out when re-dissolved in hot ethanol and subjected to the above step.

It also works well to remove the minor water solubles picked up in a butane extraction, but has its limitations because alcohol is polar and 190 proof is still almost 5% water.

As far as filtering, I prefer a 0.45 micron or a 0.2 micron syringe filter, but got good results with a coffee filter until Joe turned us on to syringe filters. We have picked both the syringes and filters up off of E-bay, as well as from our local scientific supply store.

Now, if we really need to clean up an extraction, we have had good results by re-dissolving the oil in a hot highly non-polar solvent such as hexane and repeatedly washing the solution with saturated salt water until it is mint quality.

You can even skip the re-dissolve step, by just mixing the alcohol extraction with the highly non-polar solvent before evaporating it off, and the alcohol will leave with the first water wash, after the non-polar solvent has stolen away sweet Mary's succulent and titillating charms.

Salt water washing is easy, easier with a separatory funnel, but you can even do it with a few gallon Ziploc bags in pinch, or any number of ways to siphon off, blow off, etc., to achieve that purpose.

To use a Ziploc bag, simply hang by one corner, and clip off the lower corner to drain, pinching to control flow and shut off point. Note that low density polyethylene and Hexane are not compatible long term, showing effects after 7 days of constant exposure.

The way we do it is to start out by making four or five liters of saturated salt water in glass (or ceramic) containers, by mixing sodium chloride (table salt) in hot tap water with a hand mixer until no more will dissolve. We buy the salt cheap by the bag, using salt intended for water softener use.

The magic trick is that because the saturated salt water readily accepts the alcohol, but no longer has any room for the water solubles due to its salt saturation, they fall out of solution and are filtered off in bottom sludge or left stuck to the sides of the funnel.

The rest of the magic is just as predictable when you mix the polar solvent holding sweet Mary's charms and the lustful non-polar solvent that covets them deeply, given that because of her own polarity, sweet fickle Mary herself lusts after the new suitor, so participates willingly and with a passion.

The alcohol and water are left giggling like idiots and the sludge is probably left puzzled.

To perform the salt water wash of the hexane mixture, simply pour the salt water and hexane into the separatory funnel together in about equal parts and shake well, before allowing the mixture to separate out into layers.

After carefully bleeding off the bottom layer of water, alcohol, and sludge, we replace the salt water that we bled off and shake up the mixture again to mix well. After bleeding that salt water, et al, again, and repeating the procedure several times, the hexane mixture becomes pristine and bell clear.

At that point we stop washing and evaporate off the hexane. While we use HPLC grade hexane from the local science store, light naphtha will also work for this process, but get the MSDS sheet to see what it actually contains, as light naphtha designation only states that it boils between 30C and 100C. Some is Hexane and Pentane, while others contain things like Benzene, which also boil in that range.

To get rid of the hexane, we first evaporating off the visible liquid hexane, and then add 190 proof ethanol to the extracted oil and boil that off. We repeat that procedure several times, until there is no discernible taste or odor of hexane left.

That means that the remaining hexane is below about 130/22 ppm, which is (~) our sensory threshold perception level. What does that mean as far as our health means?

For starters, because it is a simple Alkane and relatively non toxic, hexane is used extensively in food extraction, but should not be viewed as being as salubrious as mother's milk.

The first clue of course, is that it doesn't come in nearly as attractive a container, and the second is the MSDS information which tells us, that in excess, N-Hexane attacks our nervous system.

OH MAHGAWD, but do check out at what levels this is so and note that oxygen in a breathing atmosphere greater than 75% pure will kill us dead! Poison is in the dosage, so leave us please keep N-Hexane's potential nature in perspective, which includes never losing sight of it!!!!!!

Despite our worst terrors, a review of the hexane Material Safety Data Sheet shows that the oral rat LD50: is relatively high at 25000 mg/kg. At that rate it would be the equivalent of about 4.5 pounds to kill 50% of a population of 180 lb men.


[b]Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection[/b]

[b]Engineering Controls:[/b]

Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapors below their respective
threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.
[b]Personal Protection:[/b]

Safety glasses. Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves (impervious).

[b]Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:[/b]

Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid
inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this

[b]Exposure Limits:[/b]
TWA: 500 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] Inhalation TWA: 1800 (mg/m3) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] Inhalation
TWA: 176 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] SKIN TWA: 50 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] SKIN TWA:
500 STEL: 1000 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] Inhalation TWA: 1760 STEL: 3500 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV)
[United States] Inhalation Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.

[b]Section 11: Toxicological Information[/b]
[b]Routes of Entry: [/b]Absorbed through skin. Dermal contact. Inhalation. Ingestion.
[b]Toxicity to Animals:[/b]
toxicity (LD50): 25000 mg/kg [Rat]. Acute toxicity of the gas (LC50): 48000 ppm 4 hours [Rat].
Chronic Effects on Humans:
[b]MUTAGENIC EFFECTS:[/b] Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. May cause damage to the following organs: peripheral nervous
system, skin, central nervous system (CNS).
[b]Other Toxic Effects on Humans:[/b]
Very hazardous in case of ingestion, of inhalation. Hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator). Slightly hazardous in case
of skin contact (irritant).
[b]Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals:[/b] Not available.
[b]Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:[/b]
May cause adverse reproductive effects based on animal data. May be tumorigenic based on animal data. May affect genetic
material. Passes through the placental barrier in animal.
[b]Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:[/b]
Acute Potential Health Effects: Skin: May cause mild skin irritation. It can be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.
Eyes: May cause mild eye irritation. Inhalation: May be harmful if inhaled. Inhalation of vapors may cause respiratory tract
irritation. Overexposure may affect, brain, spinal cord, behavior/central and peripheral nervous systems (lightheadness,
dizziness, hallucinations, paralysis, blurred vision, memory loss, headache, euphoria, general anesthetic, muscle weakness,
numbness of the extremeties, asphyxia, unconciousness and possible death), metabolism, respiration, blood, cardiovascular
system, gastrointestinal system (nausea) Ingestion: May be harmful if swallowed. May cause gastrointestinal tract irritation
with abdominal pain and nausea. May also affect the liver, blood, brain, peripheral and central nervous systems. Symptoms of
over exposure by ingestion are similar to that of overexposure by inhalation.

Don't take that as a suggestion to drink the stuff, as government hygienists have determined that the Acute Toxicity of the gas (LC50 rat): was 48000 ppm using 4 hours exposure data and the Threshold Limit Value for an 8 hour weighted average in breathing air is 500 ppm with a Permitted Exposure Limit of 1800 mg/M3 (~ppm).

Besides NIOSH, we also have U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) regulating what you can use and what you can leave behind:


They list n-Hexane as a class two solvent with 290 ppm concentration limits, and a total PDE of 290 mg/day.

The good news is that if you are out of the stink or taste, you are less than about .01% of TLV, but the bad news (?) is that although it is relatively non toxic, hexane still tastes like lighter fluid below toxicity levels, with our sensory threshold far below the Threshold Limit Value.

Not an unexpected taste treat, because as many of ya'll know, lighter fluid is in point of fact primarily a blend of pentane (5 carbon atom chain) and hexane (6 carbon atom chain).

Most of skunk pharm oil goes into oral or topical medications, though some is vaporized. Both the oral and the vaporization applications require residual hexane below human discernable (threshold) perception levels, so out of practicality, we standardized on zero perceptible solvent content on all our oils as just a matter of policy.

Lawrd knows that there are enough people kissing and licking at least some of the more provocative foxes and hunks in our folds all over, that we voted to use the same taste standard for topicals as orals.

The last issue, is of course residue and color, when using topicals! Besides undesirable taste, and non-active bulk in your extractions, there is the pregnant issue of how much residue they leave behind on the skin and how badly they stain our clothes.

Yet another reason to take care in extracting and subsequently processing our topicals, despite the ostensible threshold perception standards being lower.

We could also add that after we have removed the bulk of the non-active ingredients, our oil is more uniform and so our mixing ratios in our menstruums will be more precise and the results more uniform, as a bonus to not leaving a mess on our skin and clothes!





Source: [url="http://freemygreenpdx.com/topic/547-getting-the-green-and-waxes-out-afterwards/?view=findpost&p=2598"]Getting the Green and Waxes Out Afterwards[/url]



Posted by EDDIEKIRK , in Extractions, DIY, Skunk Pharm, RSO, high times 07 March 2014 - * * * * * · 983 views

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[quote name="Graywolf" post="2560" timestamp="1312160915" date="31 July 2011 - 05:08 PM"]
My Holy Shit sublingual is actually the combining to two different research projects. In the process of learning to make canna lollipops, I discovered how much more palatable BHO or QWET was when combined with the cinnamon oil and the cinnamon oil acted to keep it liquid enough to drop.

I started using that as a sublingual and when the other pharmers dropped by, they often asked for some by saying, "Do you have any of that good shit?" I therefore named it GS oil, for good shit.

Shortly after that time, I was corroborating on the Holy Anointing Oil with Eloquentsolution and decided to add cinnamon candy flavoring oil to that that oral mixture, to take advantage of the faster uptake and improve the flavor.

After its success and subsequent following, I named it HS oil for holy shit!

I use it as my main daily med as a sublingual for pain. I highly recommend it!

Skunk Pharm Holy Shit recipe:

10 grams BHO Cannabis oil
3 grams Virgin unrefined Coconut oil
.7 grams Cinnamon Bark oil from Newdirectionsaromatics.com
.7 grams Cinnamon Leaf oil .
.3 grams liquid Myrrh Gum
1 gram cinnamon candy flavoring oil from Loranneoil.com

Standard pain dose for a light weight is one drop and for a high tolerance person 3 drops. Taken sublingually, some head effect is noticeable within a couple minutes, but full effect takes 45 minutes or so.

Titrate for dosage carefully if you are a light weight! Some lightweights have been discombobulated on one drop.

Heavy tolerance users on the other hand can usually tolerate six or more drops, it just doesn't relieve any more pain.[/quote]

Source: [url="http://freemygreenpdx.com/topic/533-holy-shit-sublingual/?view=findpost&p=2560"]HOLY SHIT SUBLINGUAL![/url]

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